The electronic theodolite part of prismless total station is used for measuring vertical and horizontal angle. For measurement of horizontal angles any convenient direction may be taken as reference direction. For vertical angle measurement vertical upward (zenith) direction is taken as reference direction. The accuracy of angle measurement varies from 2 to 6 seconds.
Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instrument is a major part of total station. Its range varies from 2.8 km to 4.2 km. The accuracy of measurement varies from 5 mm to 10 mm per km measurement. They are used with automatic target recognizer. The distance measured is always sloping distance from instrument to the object.
The following are some of the major advantages of using total station over the conventional surveying instruments:
Field work is carried out very fast.
Accuracy of measurement is high.
Manual errors involved in reading and recording are eliminated.
Calculation of coordinates is very fast and accurate. Even corrections for temperature and pressure are automatically made.
Computers can be employed for map making and plotting contour and cross-sections. Contour intervals and scales can be changed in no time.
Distance Measurement (ZTS-320 with Reflector)
3000m (9,842ft.) under good condition
6000m (19,685ft.) under good condition
800m (2,624 ft.)
2 mm +2ppm
Measuring Time (Fine/Quick/Tracking)
Distance Measurement(ZTS-320R Reflectorless)
350m (1,148 ft.)
Field of View
1°30′ (2.7m at 100m)
Minimum Focusing Distance
Standard RS232, SD card4, USB pen drive, mini-B
Internal Data Memory
Approx. 20,000 Points
Real-time Operating System
High resolution backlight black and white display with contrast adjustment/ Graphics: 192 x 96 pixels / 6 lines x 25 characters
2 sides Alphanumeric backlit crystal keyboard
Laser point, 4 brightness levels adjustment / Optical plummet (optional)
1mm at 1.5m instrument height
Rechargeable Li-ion battery
7.4V (DC) / 3000mAh
Operating Time With ZBA-400
Optimal 16 hours5 (Continuous angle measurement every 30 seconds) / 10 hours (typical)
Approx. 12000 times
Weight (Incl. Battery & Tribrach)
Approx. 5.5kg (12.1lb.)
-20℃ ~﹢50℃( -4℉ to +122℉)
-40℃ ~﹢70℃(-40℉to + 158℉)
Dust &Water Proof (IEC60529 Standard)/Humidity
IP65, 95%, non-condensing